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Donghai Night Pearl - Lighthouse Building along the East Coast of Zhejiang 2013-07-15


The presenter, Huang Dingfu, was born in Ningbo in September 1970. He is currently an associate researcher at the Cultural Relics Museum, a member of the Ningbo Cultural Society, a member of the Ningbo Cultural Research Association, and a member of the Ningbo Urban Research Association. He has a certain history of Ningbo local history, ancient architecture and modern architecture. Research. His masterpieces include "Ningbo Yiqing Qing'an Hall" on "Chinese Cultural Heritage", and monographs on "Ningbo Modern Architecture Research". Photo: The largest lighthouse in the Far East – the Flower and Bird Lighthouse. Map: China's easternmost national first-class lighthouse, is also the most magnificent lighthouse in eastern Zhejiang - Beiyushan Lighthouse. Since the humans have been involved in navigation, the lighthouse can be found near the coast and the island reef. It has experienced many stages such as engraved stone warning, shallow standard fingering, bonfire piloting, pagoda guiding road, artificial lighthouse and so on. The lighthouse is a loyal watchman for the safe navigation of ships. The lighthouse is a tower-shaped fixed luminous beacon built near the key parts of the channel. During the day, sailors can visually discover lighthouses on mountains, islands or on reefs; at night, lighthouses with different beams of light can be found on the dark sea. The lighthouse guides the night boat to bypass the shoal, and sails safely to the destination port through the reef. At present, there are 1,903 lighthouses (airmarks) on the coast of eastern Zhejiang, with 14 lighthouses (navigation marks) with a history of more than 100 years. In 2013, 11 coastal lighthouses in eastern Zhejiang were listed as the seventh batch of national key cultural relics protection units; on July 11, the inauguration ceremony of the national key cultural relics protection unit of the “Zhedong Coastal Lighthouse” in Ningbo Sea was held at the Qiliyu Lighthouse. According to relevant information, as early as 4,000 years ago, the Xia Dynasty used the "meteorite" as a "natural navigation mark". China's first lighthouse was a privately funded Chongwu Lighthouse (1387) built in Hui'an County, Fujian Province. In the Yongde ten years of the Ming Dynasty (1412), the government built a mound of "Fang Baizhang, a height of more than 30 feet on the southeast beach of Liuhekou in the Yangtze River estuary. The upper part of the mound is smoked and the night is open fire", guiding the ships into and out of the Yangtze River. mouth. This is a precedent for China to fund the construction of navigation aids by the government. After the signing of the "Tianjin Treaty" between China and the United Kingdom in 1858, it was stipulated that "the various branches of the trade will be provided with floating piles, ships, towers and watchtowers, which will be constructed by consular officials and local officials," which opened the construction of modern Chinese lighthouses. prelude. 1. The earliest lighthouse in Zhedong—the Qiliyu Lighthouse was built in the 4th year of Tongzhi (1865). The Qiliyu Lighthouse is one of the earliest modern lighthouses in China. The Zhejiang Customs Taxation Bureau, which was hosted by the British, was built in collaboration with Ningshao Road. . It is located on the sea outside the mouth of the Minjiang River, named for its distance from the original Zhenhai County. Although Qiliyu is only 0.03 square kilometers, its location is very important. It is where the ship enters and exits Ningbo Port. The Baliyu Lighthouse is built on this island and covers an area of ​​2.5 square meters. The overall height is 10.1 meters, and a vegetable oil lamp is placed in the earliest lighthouse. The tower is in the shape of an octagonal column, reinforced concrete is poured, and the octagonal side of the tower is 1.7 meters long. There is an internal spiral cement staircase from the tower body to the lantern. There is also a legend in the modern Qiliyu Lighthouse. In March 1885, the commander of the Far East Fleet of France drove 35 ships and more than 6,000 invading troops into Zhenhai. In the battle of Zhenhai, the lighthouse of the Qiliyu Lighthouse braved the French artillery fire, removed the light fixtures, concealed the equipment, and extinguished the lights. Do not navigate the enemy ships, so that the French warships did not dare to attack at night. 2. The largest lighthouse in the Far East—the Flower and Bird Lighthouse Flower and Bird Lighthouse is located on the Flower and Bird Island in Jixian County, also known as the North Ma'an Island Lighthouse. It is an important symbol of the southeast coast of China, Southeast Asia and the Yangtze River Estuary through the East China Sea. In the 9th year of Tongzhi (1870), it was one of the first lighthouses built in the lighthouse plan of the China Customs and Marine Administration. The tower of the Flower and Bird Lighthouse is cylindrical, 16.5 meters high, white in the lower part, concrete masonry structure, black in the upper part, and the material is mainly iron plate. The four-storey floor inside the lighthouse. The top of the tower is a copper cast dome with a wind deflector. The top layer uses huge glass as the wall and is equipped with a light source. On the lower level, there is an external gallery, which can be overlooked by the bar. There are also radio towers, power generation rooms, computer rooms, warehouses, dormitories, docks and other ancillary facilities around the lighthouse. The total area is about 22,000 square meters. The buildings and decorations are European style. The flower and bird lighthouse has a very complete navigation method, including light waves, electric waves and sound waves, which can provide different navigation means for ships of different distances. The spotlight is installed in the center of the top of the lighthouse. It uses a 2 kW halogen lamp, surrounded by a four-sided lens and a rotating unit. It rotates once a minute to make the spotlight emit 4 lights at the same time, with a range of 24 nautical miles. There are two radio towers around the lighthouse. The radio remote navigation method can call the ship once every 15 minutes to report the latitude and longitude of the ship. In the foggy day, the lighthouse also provides close-range sound wave navigation. It whistle twice every 80 seconds. Each sound is 1.5 seconds long. The sound spreads within 4 nautical miles. It is the farthest aerosol horn in China. The ox is called." 3. China's easternmost national first-class lighthouse—Northern Yushan Lighthouse Beishan Yushan Island's Beiyushan Lighthouse is the country's easternmost national first-class lighthouse. It is taller than the Flower and Bird Lighthouse and the most magnificent lighthouse. . In the twenty-first year of Guangxu (1895), Shanghai Customs spent 50,000 yuan to build the Beiyushan Lighthouse. The tower is in the shape of a truncated cone, cast iron, with a tower height of 16.9 meters and a diameter of 4 meters. It is originally made by the French "Babir" company. It has a diameter of 2.66 meters and a height of 3.6 meters. It uses kerosene. The yarn cover lamp head has a range of 25 nautical miles and weighs 15 tons. It is the world's most special mirror. In 1944, the lighthouse was destroyed in the war. In 1947, the customs sent a technician, Shi Duanchang, to rebuild the lamp. In 1955, the lighthouse was destroyed when the KMT retreated. In 1985, the Ministry of Communications approved the reconstruction of the lighthouse on the original site. At present, the light range is more than 25 nautical miles, and the device is leading domestically. 4. Cai Yuanpei’s refuge, the movie “Yueguangqu”, the location of the Dongmen Island Lighthouse, Dongmen Island Lighthouse was built in 1915 by Ren Yihe and Ren Yufu Brothers. Ren Yihe and Ren Yufu have read only two years of books because of their poor family, and then began to pursue business with their mother Huang. He has opened Baotaixing and Dajunchunguo medicines in Shipu and Shenjiamen. In 1915, the Ren brothers bought a lighthouse on the East Gate Island of Shipu to build a lighthouse to facilitate the navigation of the ship. The Dongmen Island Lighthouse is a navigational sign for ships entering and leaving Shipu Port. It is a long-standing, stone-shaped circular building covering an area of ​​about 9 square meters. The outer diameter is 3.3 meters. It is divided into upper and lower layers and the lower level is 5.59 meters high. Zhou built a stone wall, 0.25 meters thick, one stone in the west; the upper floor is 2.08 meters high, no wall, eight wooden pillars, one umbrella and one top, now has 4 pillars; the umbrella is placed with a spherical body. The lamp was rebuilt in 1999. In 1927, Cai Yuanpei and Ma Xulun were all wanted by the warlord Sun Chuanfang. They moved to Xiangshan and finally took refuge in the lighthouse on Dongmen Island. At that time, as the owner of the lighthouse, Ren’s brothers carefully cared for and protected Cai Yuanpei and Ma Xulun. Cai Yuanpei greatly appreciated the Ren’s brothers. Before leaving, he was still in the lighthouse’s room and wrote the inscription for the Dongmen Island lighthouse. Jieer Zhaoming." Now it is a win in the East Gate. Subsequently, Cai Yuanpei wanted to go to Fujian from the sea, and the Ren brothers volunteered to drive the lighthouse to protect themselves. At that time, the pirates in the area of ​​Fujian and Zhejiang knew the lighthouse and the brothers, and the pirates also benefited from the lighthouse, so they not only did not rob, but also protected. In this way, Cai Yuanpei was safely escorted to Fujian. On September 19, 1933, the director of the famous movie "Yueguang Qu", Cai Chusheng led the film crew to the East Gate Island to shoot the location. Among them, many fishing lenses were shot in the East Gate Harbor, and the entire Shipu and Dongmen Island were sensational. The Ren brothers contributed money to the film's smooth shooting. They helped the crew to send meals and help them to contact the actors. The ancient lighthouse is like the beacon tower of the ancient Great Wall of China. It shines with wood as a burning object. The size of the burning fire determines the visible distance of the light. At that time, the lighthouse could see a short distance. The person who guarded the lighthouse ignited the fire when he saw the ship passing through the night, guiding the navigation ship, so the navigation function of the lighthouse was very limited. Later, the lighthouse used kerosene as fuel, and in the late 18th and 19th centuries, European scientists invented concave mirrors, and there were illuminators and lens lighthouses with mirrors. The kerosene lamp flame was placed at the focus of the concave mirror, and the flame was reflected. The beam is formed on the concave mirror, but the visible distance is still very limited. Because only in the dark night, the distance can be seen farther, and on the night of the bright moon, the light column may be submerged in the moonlight. After using gas as fuel, the gas light on the lighthouse began to hang dozens of times brighter than the kerosene lamp, and the light of the lighthouse passed farther. The lighthouses in the east coast of Zhejiang Province were designed by the British, and they were integrated into the unique concept of navigation, lighting, moisture, ventilation, and lookouts at the time. They also included architectural elements such as practical, sturdy, beautiful and durable. The rational use of it became the classic of the navigational architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They are the epitome of European architectural art and provide important examples for studying European architectural art.