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Bone inlay: from folk furniture to art 2013-08-06


Based on the valuable wood materials such as boxwood, rosewood, red sandalwood and mahogany, the unique materials of yoghurt, bovine bone, shell and snail are used to form the pattern, which is the basic feature of the ivory, bovine bone, shell, snail and other natural materials. The high-embedded, sand-lined inlay is the craft's characteristic; the landscape content, the auspicious flowers and birds, the legendary stories, the classical content display of the opera characters, and the contrasting shades make it win the "like a Chinese painting" Good reputation; Once upon a time, it appeared on the bed, the few, the clothes box, the doors and windows, the screen, the tea tray of the rich people, and it became a manifestation of identity. It is the inlay of bones and a special handicraft of Ningbo. During the Qianlong period, Ningbo bones ushered in the golden age of Chen Mingwei. At present, the only national non-genetic inheritor in Ningbo bone and wood inlay industry. The reporter saw him, in his Zilinfang Art Museum, the ancient winding path, the patio, the shallow pool, the fish, and the incense burner that I don’t know where, the quiet fragrance that lingers in the glory will be hot summer. Separated from the outside. In the atmosphere of step by step, it is very suitable for telling old things. As for the past and present life of the bone inlay, it is slowly presented in Chen Mingwei’s remarks. In the remains of the Yin Shang culture excavated in Zhengzhou, Henan, traces of the mosaic of the snails were discovered. The Tang Dynasty Jianzhen Dongdu, carrying precious agarwood, sandalwood and a group of folk craftsmen. In the relics of the Tang Dynasty discovered in Japan, there are utensils such as tea trays made by the inlay technique. These fragmentary fragments show that the eucalyptus process has a long history. However, in Chen Mingwei's view, the real bone-wood inlays related to Ningbo, or the prosperous period of bone-wood mosaic, are in the Qing Emperor Qianlong to Daoguang years. "Do you know Ning style furniture? When it was in the Qing Dynasty, it was also called the 甬-style furniture. It is the typical carrier of bone-wood mosaic. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was with Beijing-style, Cantonese-style, and Su's furniture, and it was called China's four major furniture. In the exhibition hall of Zilinfang, there is a piece of Ning-style furniture in Chen Mingwei's mouth. A set of "pre-bed front noodles" in the Qing Daoguang period, made of mahogany. The surface is inlaid with bovine bones and ivory, pavilions, bridges, tourists, flowers and plants, bovine bones and white, ivory yellowish, plus embossed The bas-relief technique allows a picture of the south of the Yangtze River to be vividly and vividly visible. The figure of the figure seems to be still moving in the wind. Chen Mingwei said that this is the "high-embedding" technique of bone-wood mosaic. The inlaid bone pieces are higher than the wooden base, and the bas-relief technique of wood carving is used to create detailed parts on ivory and bone pieces. “Thanks to the artists of the Qianlong period, they invented the copper wire saw and later improved it into a wire saw. This tool is still in use until now.” Chen Mingwei said that because the wire saw replaced the tool, the efficiency of trimming the bone piece was greatly improved. Therefore, the graphics that can be expressed are also smoother and more detailed. Since the Qianlong period, the artistic nature of Ningbo bone and wood inlay has been rapidly improved. It is similar to Yangzhou snail inlay and Guangdong ivory. It can be said that its golden age has arrived. Ningbo folk, it has once become a great improvement in the level of face engineering technology, making the design of bone and wood inlays can be extended to a wider range of fields. “When Qianlong arrived in Daoguang, the works appeared were the most beautiful and exquisite. There were not only pictures, but also calligraphy, indicating that there were literati involved in the design. Ivory and high embedding are the characteristics of this period, artistic and visual. The effect is very strong." Chen Mingwei said. He specifically mentioned space and composition. One of the characteristics of the Ningbo bone and wood inlay process is the "scattering point perspective". The foreground does not block the back view, and the plane picture can show the three-dimensional space. Because of its superb craftsmanship, decorative and artistic, the bones are inlaid into Beijing and become a tribute. Nowadays, the Ning-style octagonal square coffee table displayed in the Renshou Hall and the Le Shou Temple in the Summer Palace is an empirical demonstration. In the private sector, it has become a symbol of wealth and taste. For those who are married and happy, people use the Ning-style furniture decorated with bone wood to embody the arrangement. The rich family also invites home craftsmen to design and make bone-embedded furniture at home. Chen Mingwei said, "People live forever, half the world is in bed." In the past wedding weddings, the most important thing is the bed, so before the Ningbo people gave their sons a daughter-in-law, the wooden bed that must be inlaid with bones, will do a little more "Thousands of labor beds." The general situation of the family, to make a bed, may be more out of the part of the material, the pattern is more beautiful, and the back, the layer will use the general material. It is not difficult to see that the bone and wood mosaic once became the face project of Ningbo people. Chen Mingwei wrote in his book "Ningbo Bone and Wood Inlay": During the Qing Dynasty, the Ningbo bone and wood inlay industry flourished and reached its peak. The artists who specialize in bone inlays have grown to more than 100 people, and there have been large and medium-sized Most of the workshops that make bones are concentrated in Ningbo Lingqiao Gate and Yaoxing Street. Foreign trade orders, the "golden age" of the bones and woods in the local and overseas markets, ended in the Opium War. "The impact of the Opium War on the bone inlay is very large. After five trades, the industry has declined quite a bit." Here, Chen Mingwei's tone is full of regrets. Ningbo has opened its doors, and the inlays have been the first to face the challenge of Western imports. The iron beds and other furniture made by Western industries have changed the buying habits of Ningbo people. The price of these iron beds is lower than that of the bone-embedded beds, and the imported goods have a novel feeling. More and more people will give up the traditional bone-inserted furniture and start to buy Western goods. The local market for bone-and-wood mosaic products has been greatly reduced. In turn, foreigners are fascinated with the embossed inlays full of oriental charm, and began to purchase a large number of inlay products. I don’t know from which day, the craftsmen have “foreign trade orders” in their hands. Chen Mingwei gave an example: a businessman with a good mind, opened a shop in Shanghai, specializing in the order of foreigners' bones and inlays, and then as an intermediary, assigning orders to Ningbo's workshops, your home made this part, and his home made that part. Finally, the middlemen unified assembly and delivery. The sudden increase in overseas demand has turned the bone-wood inlaying process from the high-embedded technique to the flat-embedded technique: after the bone piece is embedded, it is flattened, and the line carving process is applied on the plane of the bone piece to engrave the character. The lines of the five senses and objects. This technique is fast and low cost. However, the market's stimulus has also caused the abnormal expansion of the industry. Chen Mingwei said that due to the pursuit of production, the artistic level of bone inlays was drastically reduced, and even shoddy products appeared, eventually losing overseas customers. A large number of hand workshops went bankrupt, and by the time of Qing Xianfeng, almost all the artists engaged in bone-wood mosaics were diverted. There is a jargon in the handicraft industry in Ningbo, which is called “carving and carving, and the master is down the mountain”, which means the inlaying and wood carving techniques. After the decline of the bone-wood inlay industry, many artists turned into tinkerers. However, because the bones are inlaid with the tradition of the father and the teacher, the skill is still inherited by the people. Non-genetic inheritance, to reflect the higher level of craftsmanship, Chen Mingwei talked about the status quo of bone mosaic. In 1963, the Ningbo Arts and Crafts Factory was established. A group of old artists who had feelings about the inlay and craftsmanship began to bring new people. They re-examined this craft, and finally rescued it, and there were a number of Zheng Hongsheng and Lu Shunfa. In 2007, Chen Mingwei’s “Zilinfang Art Museum” was opened in the old Bund in Ningbo and became the first private museum in Ningbo. It mainly displays the bone inlays, wood carvings and calligraphy and paintings of the past dynasties. In 2008, in the district of Yinzhou District With the support of the government, the Zilinfang Art Museum was rebuilt in the new city of Zhangzhou. In the same year, the bone inlay was included in the national intangible cultural heritage protection list. At this point, this craft, after undergoing rescue and revival, is now back to the art palace. Chen Mingwei originally wanted to introduce to reporters a piece of sacred wood inlay, and it is also the treasure of the town hall of Zilinfang - Wangong bed. Unfortunately, the exhibits were just sent to the Hangzhou exhibition. The "treasure of the town hall" missed, but the reporter saw another representative work of Chen Mingwei: Wang Yinglin's "Three Character Classics" landing big card. The main body is a rosewood, embedded with bovine bones, and the front is decorated with high-inlaying techniques. It shows Wang Yinglin's lectures, a picture of one hundred boys playing, and the back is a flat-embedded technique, showing the full text of the three characters, 1188 words. The same card has three pieces, one is permanently collected by the Wenzhou Museum and one is hidden in the Chinese Woodcarving Museum. "Use non-legacy crafts to make gifts and tourist souvenirs. Isn't this closer to life?" the reporter asked. "I always believe that non-legacy and industrialization are two different things. Industrialization does not mean that the market is good, not the legacy. I think it must be original. It must be handmade by hand, and it must be higher. The craftsmanship and artistic pursuit. So I hope to do more of this milestone." Chen Mingwei replied. Chen Mingwei does not exclude industrialization. His production base also produces commercial souvenirs such as the Four Treasures of the Wenfang, but he only uses it as a kind of business card and the financial support of the museum. The inheritance he wants to do is a little less craftsmanship, a little more thought, and let future generations see the cultural and artistic connotations contained in the bone mosaic. In the next step, he is going to use three years to design the nine stories of the "Eighteen-phase" and "Floor" in Ningbo Liangzhu's legend as a high-level mixed earth screen. He hopes that it is a handed down work that is representative of the highest artistic standards in Ningbo today.