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Forty years of seeking "Hemudu" - the discovery, excavation and witnesses of the Hemudu site in the seven thousand years 2013-08-08


“The residents of Hemudu have used grinding stone tools to produce black pottery, grow rice, and live dry-street houses. The dry-column houses of Hemudu people are higher than the ground, have good ventilation and moisture-proof functions, and can also protect against the beasts and snakes. ......" In 1973, after the Hemudu site was discovered by chance, the first-year student's "History and Society" textbook had a fascinating story of the Hemudu ancestors 7,000 years ago. Over the past 40 years, scholars have not been brief on this group of ancient humans who lived between 5,000 and 7,000 years ago. Recently, the Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, the Propaganda Department of the Yuyao Municipal Committee, and the Yuyao Culture, Radio, Film and Television Press and Publication Bureau held a briefing on “The Seven Thousand Years of Hemudu, 40 Years of Discovery Road”. The discoverers, excavators, and witnesses of the site gathered in Yuyao to recall the road and share the research results. In the 2012 Tianluoshan excavation results exhibited by archaeologists, a number of precious remains, such as ceremonial big houses, double-bird woodcarving artifacts, single-wood ladders, elephant-grain carving boards, wooden beanes, wooden swords, etc., are 40 years of Hemudu. An important discovery of cultural archaeology. One ancient remains, the lifeline of ancient and modern times, opened the most quiet window of time and space in the ancient Jiangnan... Luo Chunhua, 85 years old, accompanied by his family, returned to the site again. The old man's hair has been gray, but the spirit still looks good. He told the author that as the age grows, many things have not been remembered, but the situation when the site was discovered in the past will not be forgotten for a lifetime. At the turn of the spring and summer of 1973, the local people rushed to work day and night in order to complete the basic project of the drainage station before the arrival of the Meilong period. Just as they dug more than 1 meter deep, they began to encounter "trouble." Some messy things and stones affected the progress of the construction, and the villagers began to complain. When you dig down, you will find antlers, ivory and so on. "I feel that this is the place of my ancestors." Luo Chunhua, then deputy secretary of the Commune, recalled that what made him feel special at that time was a pottery pot that was dug out, filled with rice, and the color was beautiful when there was no air. But when it meets the air, it becomes gray. Luo Chunhua also found that the mixed things in the soil are different from the ordinary gravel. These things seem to have been processed. He picked some stones with traces of processing and quickly sent them to the hands of professional archaeologists. Archaeologists quickly rushed to the scene, and after research, an ancient cultural site that shocked the world was confirmed. Hemudu is located in the Ningshao Plain in the north of the picturesque Siming Mountain. Yaojiang, which flows through the plains, divides Hemu Village and Dutou Village into two. It is an ordinary ferry connecting the two villages. At that time, the masses’ knowledge was relatively low, and such an ancient site that required high academic content reappeared day by day, but it was through the hands and observations of the working people at the grassroots level. It must be said that it was the coincidence of the times and the “people create history”. Important confirmation. Soon, the carbon-14 determination of the cultural relics from Hemudu also had results. The top first cultural layer is about 5,000 years old, and the bottom fourth cultural layer is 7,000 years old. This result surprised all archaeologists: there is a history of humans from 7000 years ago to 5,000 years ago, nearly two thousand years. Before the discovery of the Hemudu site, almost all the unearthed evidence showed that the Chinese civilization was born in the Yellow River Basin in 3000 BC, and no evidence of earlier human activities was found outside the Yellow River Basin. The discovery of the Hemudu site provides a basis for Chinese historians and archaeology, that is, the origin of Chinese civilization is not limited to one place in the Yellow River Basin. The Yangtze River Basin is also one of the important birthplaces of Chinese civilization. Although some ancient sites in the Yangtze River valley have been discovered in other regions, the Hemudu site was the first to be discovered. A large number of unearthed cultural relics bring a lot of "unbelievable" amazement, but it is so tangible in front of the eyes, providing the world with countless references and conjectures, its meaning, value and status can be said to be unparalleled. Liu Jun, the former director of the Zhejiang Institute of Archaeology, was the leader of the archaeological site of the Hemudu site. His regrets remained deeply in the same year. "A lot of precious materials could not be reflected in color. At that time, only black and white photos could not reflect the appearance of the time." Liu Jun told the author, and the traditional field archaeology only extracted a few large kinds of relics that were easy to extract, and did not go deep. Excavate, extract, preserve and interpret the “full” and “dive” information of various cultural relics. “If you used the panning technology at that time, you will leave more artifacts.” After the regrets of the past, the excavation of Hemudu put the protection first. In 1986, the orderly protection of the Hemudu site and the construction of the museum began. The 43 households and 3 enterprises on the site moved out as a whole, ranking first in the country. The protection of the Hemudu site is only 40,000 square meters, and the construction control zone demarcated in 1988 is 3.5 square kilometers, which is rare in the country and is a prerequisite for preserving the surrounding environment. In 1988, he entrusted Zhejiang Urban and Rural Planning and Design Institute to compile the “Hemudu Site Museum Master Plan” to prepare a separate development plan for a prehistoric cultural site. In 1993, the building was designed by the Architectural Design Institute of Zhejiang Province. The appearance is simple and elegant, and the shape reflects the cultural connotation of Hemudu. In 1999, the excavation site was designed by the Architectural History Research Institute of China Academy of Building Technology. The exhibition was designed by Shanghai Tongji University and the concept was advanced. As a result, experts in the recent years of large-scale repairs agreed that there is no need to redesign. Approved by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the Zhejiang Provincial Government announced the “Hemudu Site Protection Plan” in July 2009. The more protection, the more promoted the excavation, a large number of relics slowly "show" without regret. At the beginning of 2001, a private heat treatment plant in Sanya City, Yuyao, drilled wells to solve the production water, and dug out many pottery pieces, large animal bones, wood and other places. The Tianluoshan site “surfaced”. In February 2004, the first archaeological excavation was carried out. The excavation results show that the site is a well-preserved prehistoric village site in the Hemudu culture that has been best preserved in the Hemudu culture and has a relatively complete underground remains. In this way, archaeological excavations have been carried out in Yuyao Mountain, Lushan Mountain, Tianlu Mountain and the Cihu, Mingshan, Tashan and Fujiashan sites outside Yuyao to form a cluster of ancient sites of cosmic stars. Yuyao promoted the construction of the clusters in the territory, and strengthened the protection one by one, and established information exchange and contact with the cultural sites outside the city by the Hemudu cultural layer. This is a major innovation in China. In 2007, Yuyao invested 15 million yuan to cover the shed at the archaeological excavation site of the Tianluoshan site, excavating, protecting and displaying it to fill the gap in the real archaeological excavation site of the Hemudu site. The Hemudu site group adheres to the principle of “safety first, prevention first, comprehensive management” to ensure the safety of cultural relics. Through the transformation of warehouses, the construction of database information, the digital transcription of “four archives” and the protection of organic dehydration, we rely on modern science and technology to realize the scientific management of cultural relics collection, continuously improve the cultural preservation technology and improve the storage conditions of collections. If the Hemudu Cultural Heritage Cluster is likened to a cosmic star, then the Hemudu site is the core, while the Tianluoshan site is like a surrounding satellite, and other sites are dotted with stars. Through scientific excavation and unremitting protection, the Hemudu Cultural Site can be seen as a star. An expert who has been studying the Hemudu site once said that for 40 years, every time he walks into Hemudu, the waves of his thoughts are always flying, perhaps receiving the words of the ancestors hidden in the remains. They seem to have heard the words of the ancestors: "From 5000 to 7000 years ago, we lived in this place called Tianluo Mountain. It was unimaginable to live in Tianluoshan! Very few rice fields. And waterfowl, a lot of beasts. The sea is not so far tens of kilometers away, a stone's throw from the village. We have lived here for more than 100 generations, with an average life expectancy of around 30. We have no family, many live In the same row of houses, we will cook 'eight-treasure porridge', capture the favorite turtles to nourish the body, we worship birds can fly freely..." The secret of cracking is far more than this. At the Tianluoshan site, the remains of the roots of the Camellia genus unearthed in the residential area of ​​the village, through the analysis of the unearthed horizon and relative position, the comparison of the roots, the microscopic observation of the wood section, and the scientific detection of the content of theanine in the root block, It is basically determined that the Camellia tree root is the earliest artificially planted tea tree remains discovered in China. This discovery can push the history of Chinese tea culture from the documentary record more than 2,000 years ago to 6,000 years ago. With continuous research and exploration, the academic monographs of Hemudu Culture are constantly coming out. At present, there are 17 academic monographs, and excellent papers are constantly emerging. For example, academic articles based on unearthed materials are published in the highest-ranking magazines in the United States, Science and Archaeology. Hemudu culture is still a hot topic in academic research. Yuyao timely organized and disseminated the research results. Since 1994, large-scale academic conferences such as the "Hemudu Culture International Academic Symposium" and the "Tianluoshan Site Academic Seminar" have been held. For example, it is rare for eight international representatives to attend the same meeting to explain the Hemudu culture. The academic status of the research and its appeal and influence to the academic community. Among the many achievements, many experts value the natural combination of Hemudu culture and marine culture. Unearthed tuna, sharks, whales, groupers and other marine fish bones, plus more than 20 pieces of various forms of wooden paddles, indicating that the Tianluoshan site is currently the most marine cultural feature in China. It is one of the most important historical witnesses of Zhejiang as a major marine province. The words of the ancestors are passed on to the public a little bit by these studies. As early as March 1990, the unearthed cultural relics exhibition hall of Hemudu Site was opened on the site of the Hemudu Workstation and the Luojiang Xiangji Power Station on the southwestern site of the former Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology. 337 pieces of artifacts and reproductions were unearthed at Hemudu Site. Hemudu Culture The panorama was first presented to the public. Over the past 20 years since its establishment, the Hemudu Site Museum has received more than 3 million experts, scholars and tourists from home and abroad. It has won the "100 Patriotic Education Demonstration Bases" of the Central Propaganda Department, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the National Cultural Relics Bureau. Advanced collective and other honors. Since May 18, 2008, the museum has been opened to the public free of charge. This year, the audience has reached more than 500,000 people. It also actively organizes activities such as the construction of the library, the sending of culture into the campus, and the training of small lecturers. In the past 10 years, more than 70 primary and secondary schools in Yuyao and surrounding counties and cities have been touring exhibitions, attracting more than 60,000 teachers and students, and training more than 60 small lecturers in recent years. The Hemudu culture is gradually spreading to the world. In 1998, the museum and the Ningbo Museum jointly organized the “Hemudu Farming Relics Special Exhibition” at the Jeollanam-do Agricultural Museum in South Korea. In 2007, selected some of the unearthed cultural relics of Tianluoshan participated in the provincial archaeological site at the Bishop Museum in Hawaii, USA. Special exhibition of prehistoric culture on the southeast coast of China." As a kind of spiritual thought, the Hemudu culture, which has been transformed by archaeology, has rich communication carriers and diverse channels. It has opened up a channel of research and popularization in the high-end fields and folk villages.