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[Canal City·Ningbo·1] Ningbo Commercial Port created by the Grand Canal 2013-12-19

 

The canal shipping in Ningbo, Sanjiangkou, Ningbo can be traced back to the Spring and Autumn Period. In 482 BC, Goujian developed a navy, added a gateway to the sea, and opened up a city in the land of the east of the country, called the sentence (now Ningbo). During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the water network that runs through the canal not only linked the production and consumption of the south and the north, but also stimulated the production and economic development of the canal through the region. At the same time, it will form a maritime trade in the Yangtze River Delta with ports in China's coastal areas, East Asia and the Indian Ocean. With the waterway and the Zhedong Canal, which are linked to Ningbo by Yuyao and Cao Yu, Ningbo actually became the southern end of the Grand Canal. The main characteristics of the river water network are the dense river network in the ancient city of Ningbo, “Sanjiang Liutang River”, the waterway is vertical and horizontal, extending in all directions. Along the coast, there are many important fate and hydraulic relics in various historical periods, such as the canal, the official warehouse, the hall, the temple, the ancient bridge, the ancient ferry, and the ancient sluice. The Grand Canal (Ning Band) river channel includes the Yaojiang River, the Lijiang River, the Cijiang River, the Xizi River, the Xitang River, the Eighteen Rivers and other tidal river channels and the “Wave-proof” waterway. An important city river, inland river. It enters from Yuyao in the west, and goes to Doumen, Dongyao City, Zhangting, Cicheng, Ningbo City, and Zhenhai River to the sea. The distance is more than 100 kilometers. Among them, the canal is 145 kilometers and the branch canal is 179 kilometers, a total of 324 kilometers. According to historical records, the Cao Yu of the canal to the Mingzhou (now Ningbo) section had already passed through the boat in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In addition to the construction of water conservancy in the Tang Dynasty, the rivers of the plains were rectified and some were built.堰, dike and Doumen. During the Northern Song Dynasty, due to the shoal, quicksand and tidal waves in the Hangzhou Bay and the Yangtze River estuary, the vessels from the north and the south had rarely taken the Qiantang River estuary route and concentrated in the port of Mingzhou. According to historical records, "only the Yuyao Xiaojiang, the Yizhou and the floating canal, reached Hanghang (now Hangzhou, Shaoxing)." The ocean-going sailboats or small sailboats from southeastern China were forced to unload in Ningbo, and the freight materials were transferred to small ships that could pass through the shipping river and other inland waterways. These boats were then transferred to Hangzhou, the ports along the Yangtze River and the coastal areas of northern China. . This phenomenon shows that before the fourth year of the Northern Song Dynasty (1026 BC), the route of the Zhejiang-Zhejiang Canal, which runs through Hangzhou-Vietnam-Mingzhou, has been fully opened and has the basic conditions for carrying foreign ships. To provide overseas customers with the basic functions of “Yizhou” service. As Mingzhou became one of the main anchorages for domestic and foreign merchants and shipwrecks, the maritime ambassadors were more willing to “float the Wu” and “from the two provinces to the lower reaches”, and the Zhedong Canal including the canal (Ning Band) became An important transportation channel between the Northern Song Dynasty and overseas countries. It also shows the important natural geographical location of Ningbo in the history of inland navigation and the important position of the canal (Ning Band) at that time with strong shipping capacity and transportation hub. The main distribution center of domestic and overseas trade is the superior geographical environment of Ningbo and the river. The inland rivers and canal water networks in the city have been well-connected in the Tang Dynasty and formed channels and routes for inland rivers and seas. In the Tang Dynasty, the route to Mingzhou to go to the sea was: from the Yuezhou City to the east, the Jianhu Canal (虞绍运河), the Cao Yujiang River, and the Yaojiang River and the Lijiang River from the Mingzhou (now Ningbo) port. During the Southern Song Dynasty, Ningbo's maritime trade was prosperous, and both domestic and foreign markets expanded. At that time, Ningbo was the main distribution center of the entire coastal area between Quanzhou and Shandong Peninsula. Merchants including Ningbo merchants sailed overseas through Ningbo. North and South traders through the trade center and distribution center in Ningbo, import iron, wood, sugar, fuel, hemp, pepper, incense and ivory from the south; input silk from the north; input wood, sulfur, mercury, gold, and pearl from Japan . Outputs include silk, porcelain, lacquer, medicinal herbs, incense, printed matter, stationery, straw mats, silver coins and copper coins. For example, the southern merchants who were famous in the “Nangbang” or “South” in Ningbo at that time imported wood, copper, iron and other sundries into Ningbo. They exported to the south (mainly from Yunnan, Guangxi, etc.) ports and produced them in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Silk, cotton, textiles, ceramics and seafood; and the northern merchants known as the "Northern" or "North" through Ningbo, a cargo transfer center, imported beans and bean cakes into Ningbo (a fertilizer needed for the cotton industry) ), bovine bone, lard, fuel and other materials, exporting rice, seafood, cotton, bamboo and dried fruit from the south to the north. With Ningbo as the hub, it provides convenient water transportation conditions to Hangzhou, Shanghai, Nanjing and the cities along the canal, the south of the city and the overseas trade. The Canal Drives Overseas Trade and Prosperity In the first year of the Southern Song Dynasty, there were nearly 8,000 sailing boats, small sailboats and fishing boats along the coast of Ningbo. After the modern Opium War, Ningbo was one of the five trading cities, and the maritime trade was rapidly developed. In addition, most of the grain in the Xianfeng period was changed to sea transportation. Ningbo Sanjiangkou sailed, merchants gathered, the city trade flourished, and the population was dense. Port trade is booming. Overseas businessmen from all over the North and North Korea, Japan, India and other countries are in constant stream. The smooth flow of the canal waterway has promoted the circulation of commodities and provided abundant sources and varieties to cities across the country. The communication of the Grand Canal further promoted the connection between Ningbo as a trade distribution center and at home and abroad. Foreign businessmen such as businessmen, missionaries and ambassadors from overseas, exchanged commerce and culture with Ningbo and the Chinese mainland, and the resulting Buddhism and Islam. The spread of religions and foreign cultures such as teaching and Catholicism left behind a number of valuable cultural relics and historical buildings such as the Tianhou Palace, the Catholic Church, the Korean Embassy, ​​and the mosque. Now the city of Ningbo still has ancient shipping docks, embassies, halls, etc. There are many historical relics that reflect the dual characteristics of the canal and the port city. The Grand Canal (Ning Band), as the southern end of the sea, connects the Maritime Silk Road and has an extremely important commercial value and strategic position in history. As one of the core cities along the Zhejiang East Canal, Ningbo is interconnected with maritime transport and has the dual characteristics of a canal city and a port city. It is also one of the representative and unique cities in the canal city along the Grand Canal.