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Ningbo: the Grand Canal, the sea and the sea, the important port, the Maritime Silk Road, the starting point 2013-12-19


Ningbo Sanjiangkou Ningbo has been an important port city in the southeast coast of China since ancient times, with distinctive regional characteristics and rich cultural heritage. On December 8, 1986, Ningbo was announced by the State Council as the second batch of national historical and cultural cities. Cultural heritage and famous city protection have become an important part of Ningbo's urban construction and development. In December 2005, the two cultural heritages of Ningbo “Maritime Silk Road” and “Yueyao Celadon Site” were included in the preliminary list of China’s declared World Cultural Heritage. In November 2008, Ningbo was officially listed as one of the joint application cities of China's Grand Canal. In December 2008, Ningbo City established the “Leading Canal (Ning Band) Protection and Application World Cultural Heritage Leading Group”. In February 2010, “active participation in the Chinese Grand Canal application” was written into the “Government Work Report” of Ningbo City, requiring the city to work together to promote the application. In the course of various work, there are three major propositions throughout: In late October 2008, the leaders of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage and related experts have clearly pointed out: “The Sui and Tang Canals have been included in the scope of the Grand Canal, and Chang’an and Luoyang are onshore silk. The starting point of the road, while Ningbo is connected to the Jiangnan Canal through the Zhedong Canal, is the starting point of the Maritime Silk Road. The Grand Canal is not only a water passage connecting China's north and south, but also a large passage connecting the world." This is very strategic, and it is also in line with the actual development of the Chinese Grand Canal since the Sui and Tang Dynasties. It is even more significant for Ningbo. In mid-November, the Zhejiang Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau held the “Zhedong Canal Protection and Application World Heritage Work Conference” in Hangzhou, demanding that Ningbo “special attention to Mingzhou Port is an important echo of the two heritages (ie Ningbo is the “Grand Canal Application” and "The double heritage application city of the maritime Silk Road application"). The geographical characteristics of Ningbo first came from the endowment of nature. The Ningbo Port and the Zhedong Canal actually provide the China Grand Canal with a golden waterway and an excellent port for domestic and foreign trade. It is the southern gateway of the China Grand Canal connecting the world's major passages and the starting point of the Maritime Silk Road. Ningbo Port and Zhedong Canal are important landing ports for foreign trade and trade groups since the Tang and Song Dynasties and canal channels leading to the Central Plains and inland. They are also the main channel for Chinese missions and business groups to go to sea. The two cultures meet in Ningbo and become the basic characteristics of Ningbo's urban civilization. Starting from the Yuan Dynasty, an important feature of the southern grain-transportation is the river-sea combined transport. The Qing'an Hall and the Anzhen Hall in Sanjiangkou are important cultural heritages of Ningbo's ancient port shipping management and industry beliefs. The Tang and Song Dynasties were an important period for the construction of Ningbo's agricultural water conservancy and water transport transportation projects. At that time, the farmland water conservancy and the inland water transport were in common, and while the water conservancy was being built, the rivers in the plains were also rectified. It is the foothills of western Yunnan (one of the four major water conservancy projects in ancient China, the national security unit), the Nantang River, the Zhongtang River, the Xitang River, the Houtang River, the Zhongtang River and the Qiantang River in the east of the Yangtze River, and the Yangong Canal in Jiangbei. Cijiang, Zhongdahe, the moon lake and the city river system in Ningbo city center, etc., formed a river grid bureau for the development of irrigation, storage and navigation. The core water system of the Sanjiang Plain in Ningbo has been summarized as “Sanjiang Liutang River, One Lake in the City”, which is an important water transportation network between the port of Mingzhou and the hinterland. The coastal defense military remains of Ningbo Haikou are an important representative of this type of cultural heritage. Zhaobaoshan Weiyuan City, the turrets on both sides of the Minjiang River estuary, and the Houhaitang in the city and the pond have fully demonstrated the authenticity, scientificity and integrity of this system, and are an important carrier for reflecting and studying the cultural heritage of the Grand Canal. The four ancient counties of Yuyao, Cixi, Qixian and Zhenhai and their county towns are lined up along the main channel of the Grand Canal (Ning Band). The process analysis of the formation and development of its site selection, layout and functional positioning is almost identical to the formation of the canal and its function. Yuyao County (founded in 200 AD) is the shipping and water conservancy center of the west section of Yaojiang and the east bank of Cao'e River; Cixi County (AD 738) defended and assumed the front and back rivers of the eastern section of the Yaojiang River Valley Plain (ie Yao Jiang, Ci Jiang) Shipping and management; Jixian County (Ningbo Fucheng, built in 821 AD) is set to provide a core port system for river and sea transshipment; Zhenhai City (Songchu) is mainly designed to solve the safety of the seaport. On the main channel of the 100-kilometer canal, four ancient county-level administrative agencies with intensive shapes, structures, functions and complete functions have been set up to ensure the functional management needs of the navigation channels of Ningbo Port and the Grand Canal (Ning Band). This is rare in other sections. After the founding of New China, the construction of water conservancy facilities in Zhedong has made fundamental progress. The Yaojiang River has changed from the Chaoshan River to the inland river, completely changing the situation that the shipping water conservancy in the Yaojiang River Valley plain is difficult to control. The shipping water conservancy facilities that represent the progressive characteristics of this canal civilization era are basically intact and formed in the Zhejiang East Canal (Ning Band), and have important value that cannot be ignored. In addition, there are several key points in the intangible cultural heritage: Yuyao is the birthplace of Wang Yangming and Huang Zongxi, and Shaoxing, Yuyao and Ningbo are the main activities of the representatives of Zhedong culture and academic thought. Yuyao, Cixi and Qixian counties in the three counties along the Yangtze River with the Yaojiang (the eastern section of the East Zhejiang Canal) are shocked by the unprecedented scientific and educational spectacle. In the nearly three hundred years of the Ming Dynasty, a total of 921 people were admitted to the Imperial Examination. The image of the "three counties" is splendid in the history of Chinese imperial examinations and cultural history, and has become a regional legend passed down from generation to generation. Ningbo Port and the shipping gang are important areas for promoting the spread of Mazu beliefs to the north. They are also one of the places where the local operas along the canal towns of Jiangsu and Zhejiang are produced and spread. There are operas, Yue opera, Yao opera, Si Ming Nan Ci, Ningbo. Take books and other opera art. Ningbo is also the birthplace and spread of mahjong tiles. The Grand Canal cultural heritage is a huge system, and it is not an easy task to fully understand and accurately select its objective expression. The time for the Zhejiang East Canal (Ning Band) to join the application was late, and the research results of the academic and professional departments were relatively small. Strengthening research in this area is a major focus of this phase of work. The Ning Band Canal space and the new Hangyong Canal Project, the inland river improvement project, the water conservancy flood prevention and disaster prevention project, the rail transit project and the urban and rural land use planning cross each other, and various contradictions sometimes appear. Transportation and water conservancy are major livelihood projects, and many projects have entered the implementation stage. How to update the inherent concept and current mode of urban and rural construction through the practice of the cultural heritage protection of the Grand Canal, enhance the cultural quality of regional development, and fully display the core cultural value of the Grand Canal (Ning Band), which is the perfect combination of the East Zhejiang Canal and the Harbour City. It is our Difficult tasks and beautiful goals. Although Ningbo has the longest time to join the Grand Canal to protect its application, it has its own advantages: First, its characteristics are obvious and its value is high. Second, the foundation of heritage protection and urban construction is better. Most of the selected heritage points are the original national insurance, provincial insurance units and the determined seventh batch of national insurance declaration units. The protection and research work has a basis.