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Caotai team: the ink-and-wash life outside the drama--the survival status of Ningbo private theater group 2014-02-20


"The civet cat is changing for the prince" Life is like a play, and drama is like life. People who like to watch the drama will hang this word on their lips. It is because there are different life conditions in the play, and people can continue to play. In fact, the troupe itself and the world around them also constitute a stage of life, and there are various stories of sorrow and joy. The actors in the private troupe who have been rooted in the grassroots have retained many of the original ecology of Chinese opera performances, from which they can feel their love and persistence in the opera. Acting: More is an art enjoyment than the regular academy group, the private theater group can only be regarded as an amateur theater group, although some of them also have a very successful market, and the business is good, although some actors have basically made a living by acting, but many The troupe is not solely for profit, and most actors also have their own occupations and jobs. Although the troupe and the actor are of amateur nature, it cannot be judged that the level of performance must be "amateur". In some private theater groups, there are quite professional actors, such as the male flower actor Wang Chunfeng of the Jinhua Yue Opera Troupe of the Zhonggong Temple in Zhangzhou. From Keqiao in Shaoxing, he sang Yue opera from an early age and sang very well. After joining the Jinhua Yue Opera Troupe, he won the first place in several performance competitions. The only experience of second place in his opinion was in his view. It is like a shame, which shows the level of performance and the high level of heart. Because they don't rely solely on performances, many actors in the private theater group don't pay much attention to the economic income they receive through performances. Many private theater companies are still not profitable, and they rely on actors to raise money. Some private theater companies can only pay more than 100 yuan to the actors after each performance, and the money is usually not enough for them to drive back and forth. Even so, the actors were very serious about the rehearsal of the performance peacetime. They were the actors of the meat industry in the street, and they took the time to write back the lines, so that the script was full of lard; An actor who had just finished tooth extraction surgery in the morning still appeared in the afternoon rehearsal scene. All of this is entirely out of their inner love for opera, and it is out of love. They will try their best to overcome various difficulties. For example, in order to solve the problem of less scripts, Zhongxing’s troupe has arranged a brand new one based on news reports. Drama. If you look at amateur troupes in a larger geographical area, you will roughly come to the conclusion that the more economically developed places, the more amateur troupes, because amateur actors do not have to live by acting, in their eyes, acting More is an art enjoyment. Head: The overall appearance of a major troupe of a troupe depends largely on the personal ability and style of the head. Xiangshan Asian Red Sister Yue Opera Troupe has a certain influence in the local area. Head Xu Yahong began to perform at the age of 14 years old. He was 17 years old and went to Taizhou. He was 19 years old and went to Putuo and Zhoushan. At the age of 29, he started his own group and served as the head and head. Shoulder. Communicate with her, you can feel her strong self-confidence, which comes from her understanding of the audience. Everywhere, she will know how the audience composition is and how she likes it through various channels. As a result, more and more people are watching their performances, and the audience will cry or laugh with the story. Mao Xiangzhen, the head of Xiangshan Yuchen Yue Opera Troupe, is like a gentleman. In his remarks, you will hear his eager attention to the opera. He has his own ideas about the various problems encountered in the inheritance of folk art. He even spent several years writing a related article to discuss the commercialization of the theater and how to really go to the grassroots audience. Before the opening of the show, the hot-field broadcast broadcasted "Honghu Water Waves and Waves", which also showed his personal pursuit and preferences from one side. In his view, in the countryside, the free and easy road show has more market than the moderately-played script, which is also a true portrayal of the ancient troupe performance. Under his influence, the troupe can handle the scale even when performing the road show, which is not warm. Taiwan’s Xiaosheng Shi Hongwei stayed in his troupe for more than a decade. Although he had the opportunity to go to other groups to get a double salary, he was rejected. For Shi Hongwei, it is the sense of responsibility of the head of the team that allows her to stay until now and be willing to take the disease. Her persistence also confirmed the judgment of Mao Xiangzhen: the private theater group has a deep-rooted mass base, and a certain group may disappear, but this form of performance will certainly continue. The folk power will keep the troupe alive. The audience watched the performance repertoire: the private troupe that adapted to the rural market and survived by the rural audience naturally also branded their own unique brand, which was mainly reflected in their repertoire. In the troupe, from time to time, you will hear the words "Buddha Opera" and "Master Play". The former is related to religion, such as Bodhisattva birthday, Bodhisattva's birth day, Bodhisattva's enlightenment day, etc., or a temple is open for work, etc. The troupe came to perform. The performance venues are generally in the relevant temples. There are often stages for performances in the temples in the rural areas of the south of the Yangtze River. This is also an important reason for the relatively large number of ancient operas in Ningbo. If there is no stage in the temple, or if the stage space is small, it will temporarily set up on the open space. These plays are played for at least three days, and even for five days, seven days, and nine days. Before the end of the final day of the performance, an actor will be dressed as a red-faced Guan Gong, and the Qinglong 偃月刀 will be used to sweep the stage on the stage and in the temple, also known as the altar, in order to eliminate disasters and pray for peace. In addition to the Bodhisattva scene that benefits everyone in the village, there are also plays that come out of the clan. The most typical ones are the opening and closing dramas, that is, when a certain word in the genealogy begins to be used and ends, in order to pray for the thrill of the peers. At this time, all the people in the village will pay for it, and they will usually sing for three to five days. The troupe invited is mainly a troupe with the same name as the head of the family. This kind of play is usually sung once in three years, showing the meaning In the selection of the play, it is required to sing the Taiping auspicious drama and the big reunion drama, and it will be more generous in the remuneration. "Master play" means that when the rich Shouxing is in life, the troupe will come to the village to perform, and the neighbors can use it to listen to the drama. Such a play not only satisfies the requirements of the life-stayer, but also shows the filial piety of the children and grandchildren and the economic strength of the family to the neighbors. Nowadays, some of the inviters of the grandfather’s opera are still old people who are living in life, and some are entrepreneurs in the village. They donate money to show it to everyone. At this time, the sponsors will be written on the inscription boards on both sides of the stage. And the name of the person in charge, this way naturally has the effect of advertising. In the old drama, there is a composition of respect for the old and the old, so there is a special old drama. For example, Chen Baoguo of Ninghai started to pull Hu Huqin at the age of 8 and entered the Cultural Center at the age of 16. He once went to Xinchang to learn Vietnamese opera. After he came back, he began to teach children to learn Vietnamese opera. Not only did he not want money, but sometimes he also paid for others. At most, he had more than 200. a student. During the "Cultural Revolution", because he sang Yue Opera to teach Yue opera, he was once wearing a high hat to swim in the streets. In his words, "love and hate the Yue opera." He has trained many excellent Yue opera actors. On the day of his 60th birthday, his students took the initiative to sing a five-day drama for him. The level of performance was second to none in the Ninghai area after liberation. This incident also reflects from one aspect the people who are fascinated by the drama, pay more attention to the spiritual pleasure, and care more about the true feelings of the world. In addition to the above three main ways of doing things, there are many occasions in the countryside that need to use the performances of the troupe, such as weddings and funerals, various traditional festivals. In addition, the old-age associations currently in various villages have also become a force for the development of private theater companies. "Love" Actors: A group of people who make a living from the drama talk about the actors of the private troupe, they can use "crawling" to describe their lives. Some groups perform more than 500 plays a year. According to two games a day, they have to sing for more than 250 days. A good troupe can even sing for more than 300 days a year. There are almost no holidays or rest days. Besides singing, it is singing. The actor's high income can reach an annual salary of 300,000 yuan or even higher. For example, the one-day salary of the Zhangzhou Xinlei Yue Opera Troupe will be 1,200 yuan. If the troupe's play is wide enough to perform for 300 days a year, then the annual salary of 300,000 yuan can be fully obtained. This level of income is much higher than that of the regular professional troupe, but few actors have come out of the regular troupe to the private troupe, because their suffering is not something that ordinary people can eat. In these private theater groups, there is no AB corner. The setting of the actor is definitely a radish and a pit. If no one is missing, the situation of taking the disease will happen. The usual frequent transition from one place to another makes them unable to rest on time like normal people. Actors often appear hoarse because of singing. In addition to making a living, such a hard and painful singing scene has to say that there is another reason: the love of the opera, the love and obsession of the stage. In them, people can appreciate the spiritual pursuit of the old artists before the liberation. In them, you can really feel the passion and heroic struggle for your career. You can see the evolution of the Chinese opera that has been independent of the temple for thousands of years. As they said, "It’s not a madness, it’s not a play." Without the madness of the madness, you can’t eat the hardships of ten years of work. You won’t be relieved of the days of salt water, and you won’t walk 100 kilometers a day. The road only wants to give his actor a chance to perform, not to risk the infection of his lips. He put eight or even ten wild boars in his mouth to practice his teeth. I have to mention Mr. Wang Wanli, who is in the Ninghai. In him, I can see more about what kind of state is living for a play. He has cultivated countless Ping and Yue opera actors since he was old and rare. Now Ning Hai’s actor who can play his teeth is his disciple, and many heads have received rigorous training from him. Under his organization, many troupes have risen from nothing, from the literary team in the village to the private theater. He is still taking his apprentices, and he is also concerned with the inheritance and development of Ninghai Ping. Even in the case of not much drama, he even compiled a play called "Qun Kun Zheng Qi". Although he has not performed his teeth for many years, it is obvious from his hard tongue and mouth that his life has been dedicated to the Ping and Yue opera and dedicated to the opera. The actress who holds the child inherits: Since the family has a difficult experience, since it is a private theater group generated by the private organizations, there will be different ways of establishing and inheriting. One is developed entirely by the interest group, and the other is developed by the interest group. One is passed down by the previous generation like the family industry, and then there is a famous star from the original troupe to form a troupe. Of course, if you continue to ask the original motivations of these similar family-owned troupes, you may still develop from interest. This is also in line with the development of the folk troupe: from the spontaneous, when the prosperity, the establishment of a regular private theater group, when the decline, people walked away. But no matter what, what remains unchanged is that the needs of the audience have inspired a group of amateur interest groups to become private troupes, and a troupe that is no longer favored by the market has gradually disappeared. Everything is going on without leaving any traces. Here are a few of the troupes that are similar to the family industry. Xiangshan Guancun Village Yue Opera Troupe is a troupe that was passed down from the previous generation. It was established in 1993. It was originally called Xiaojinhua Yue Opera Troupe. Later it was changed to Chunguang Yue Opera Troupe and then changed to Shipu Yue Opera Troupe. It was only recently changed to the current name. This is also related to the experience of the old head: the father of the old head, the current head of Shi Fenhua, was originally the deputy secretary of Guantou Village. Because he liked to sing, he set up on the basis of the group of Yue opera lovers. Yue Opera Group. The status quo of the troupe earns a little when the year is good, and loses a little when it is not good. The current head of the team, Shi Fenhua, said that the opening of the troupe has become their way of life, which entrusted their dream of future life. Now Shifenhua’s daughter is studying in Ningbo, and she will return to the troupe to help her acting on holidays. However, when it comes to inheritance, Shi Fenhua cannot guarantee that her daughter will take over the troupe because young people have a younger lifestyle. Similarly, the Ninghai Xiaodan Red Yue Opera Troupe is also the troupe of the father-in-law, and the father of the head of the boy began to bring the troupe 25 years ago. Now, the 17-year-old daughter of the boy’s head is already in the group after graduating from the art school. Performed Wudan. In order to improve the overall level, this year, the head of the boy sent a total of 4 performers to the province to participate in the training of private theater companies. From this we can imagine the general direction of this troupe in the future. The reason why the head of Hu Lixue of the Xinlei Yue Opera Troupe of Zhangzhou was to form this team was because his father had been the head of the village and the head of the village Yue Opera Troupe in his early years. He also liked Yue Opera. He also had experience in operating the troupe. And because of the early start and the many people I know, her troupe has a very wide range of dramas, and many of the actors come here. Ye Suhong, the head of Ninghai Xiaohonghua Yue Opera Troupe, took over the current troupe from her mother-in-law. She is 31 years old and she plays a small student in the group. Because she is used to actors, she always feels that the group is too hard and there are too many things to worry about. Every family has its cupboard. In different troupes, there are different survival strategies and encounters, and different living conditions can be felt, and all of these are the proper meanings of the development of private troupes, which together constitute the "kaleoscope" of the survival status of private troupes.