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The important roots of the Chinese civilization Loess Plateau: the stone kingdom more than 4,000 years ago 2018-03-22


If you want to ask about the major discoveries of prehistoric archaeology in China in recent years, I believe many people will immediately think of the Shijie site in Gaojiabao Town, Shenmu County, Shaanxi Province. People in this prosperous era no later than 2300 BC, the scale is larger than Liangzhu and Tao Temple, and the area from the late Longshan to the early summer is about "4 million square meters". Its emergence turned out to provide a new research material for studying the diversity and development process of the origin of Chinese civilization. In 2013, the Shijie site was jointly awarded the “Top Ten Major Field Archaeology Discoveries in the World” at the first “World Archaeological Shanghai Forum” and Turkey’s “Gobeckli Stone Array”, which attracted worldwide attention. However, from the initial involvement of archaeological workers in the Shiji site to its cultural significance, it was initially interpreted and passed through a whole class. Today, in 1958, the first stone cultural relics in the Yellow Sands, the site of the Shijiao Mountain Site was first recorded and paid attention by archaeologists during the first national cultural relics survey. According to the survey information and collected specimens, it is considered to be a Neolithic Longshan cultural site; in 1976, the archaeological investigation of the Shiji site in Shaanxi Province, especially the collection of stone jade articles, attracted great attention from the world and a strong interest in the academic circles. There are more and more calls for archaeological work as soon as possible. In 1981, the first archaeological excavation work of the Shiji site in Xi'an Banpo Museum played an important role in exploring the connotation and nature of the Shiqian site. In the 21st century, the archaeological investigation of the regional system around the sarcophagus officially began. 2012-2013 East Gate of the Outer City, Hancheng Dandan Aristocratic Cemetery in 2014, Fanzhuangzi “Outpost” outside the city in 2015, Huangchengtai Gate Site and East Retaining Wall in 2016—2017...A series of excavations and research The orderly development of the site of the Shijie site is more and more clearly presented to the public. Archaeological excavations and studies have shown that the site of the Shijie City is about 4,300 to 3,800 years ago. The city has an area of ​​more than 4 million square meters. It is a three-story stone city that is basically intact and can be closed by the “Huangchengtai”, the inner city and the outer city. Composition, there are also outposts outside the city that can be seen through each other. Among them, Huangchengtai is a Taicheng with a small top and a small bread-bricked stepped stone wall. It is tall and sturdy. It has a top area of ​​80,000 square meters and is a distribution area of ​​large “palace” and high-grade building bases. The inner city is surrounded by Huangchengtai, with a range of 2.1 million square meters. The outer city is a closed space formed by an arc-shaped stone wall that is expanded to the southeast by the southeastern wall of the inner city. The area is about 1.9 million square meters. Meter. The inner and outer cities are surrounded by Shichengyu, with a length of 10 kilometers and a width of 2.5 meters. The atmosphere is magnificent and well-built; the imperial city, the inner city and the outer city are listed; the palace, the address, the tomb, the city wall Longshan ruins, such as city defense facilities, are scattered. The site of the Shijie is famous for jade. The numerous gums that symbolize the early royal power are particularly eye-catching, reflecting to some extent the strong “ruling” ability of Shijie. "Tibetan in the stone" is a very special phenomenon seen by Shijie. These jade objects were intentionally embedded in the wall or buried in the wall during the construction of the wall, and a large number of girls’ heads buried under the wall and inlaid on the surface of the wall. The stone carvings have the same meaning, perhaps expressing the strong desire of the rulers of the Shiji to send the imperial security to the imperial city. The stone walls of the ridges of the ridges, like the Great Wall, can be found on the gates of Huaigu and Gaoda. The statues of the ancient gates can be like the statues of the ancients. The magnificent imperial city platform is as solemn and solemn as the pyramid... Who would have thought that Today's long yellow sand land, once dense forests, rich grass and water, has nurtured the ultimate glory of the northern farming and animal husbandry, nourishing the powerful kingdom of the Tuwei River and the upper reaches of the Yellow River. It is not only the northern core settlement but also the early kingdom. The contemporary archaeological workers not only have the task of restoring ancient society, but also shoulder a more complicated and important mission to explore the contribution and influence of regional archaeological culture to Chinese civilization and even world civilization. Archaeological cultures such as Hongshan culture, Dawenkou culture, Erlitou culture, (post) Shijiahe culture, Liangzhu culture play an extremely important role in the ancient civilizations of the region, representing the ancient civilizations of the region. The advanced development stage can be regarded as an important root of Chinese civilization. The Shiji site is the core settlement in the northern part of China from the late Longshan to the early Xia Dynasty. The site of the Shijie city is the Tudor city site in the northern part of China more than 4,000 years ago. The archaeological culture represented by the Shiqian site is extremely high in the northern part of China around 2000 BC. The archaeological culture of the "strong" ancient civilization in the northern region represented by the Shiji site is an important source of Chinese civilization. In recent years, prehistoric archaeology has gradually formed a pattern of Liangzhu ruins and Shiji ruins, which are divided into north and south. Judging from the current data, when the Liangzhu culture was inferior in about 2300 BC, the site of Shijie was still on the road to glory. Although the absolute era of reaching the most prosperous stage is sequential, both of them give important support and support to the Chinese civilization in terms of "institutional civilization." The class differentiation resulting from the difference in rank is an important internal cause of the origin and formation of the early Chinese state. It is along this trajectory that the ancient city of Shijie gradually developed into the capital of the country in the early 4,000 years ago. The current data indicates that the different areas within the site of the Shijie City and the grades of the surrounding sites are very different. Huangchengtai can basically be identified as the “core area” of the entire Shijie City. Apart from its relative independence, it is closely guarded by the inner and outer cities. The newly discovered large-scale relics and special relics are also the full status of Huangchengtai residents. reflect. Compared with the unearthed relics from other sites in the inner and outer cities, the quantity and quality of the daily pottery, bones and jade articles of Huangchengtai are much higher; copper products and cast copper, tens of thousands of bones and production The related relics of the bones implied that there may be bronze and bone making workshops on the imperial city platform; more than 10 pieces of pottery eagle, more than 100 pieces of buried bones, which are well-prepared and inlaid on the stone wall. Still looking at the distant stone carving eyes, these relics seem to give the imperial city a strong spirit or even a religious connotation... All of these are only to express the highest rank of the imperial city residents in Shijie City. Although not completely statistically, it is basically possible to determine the number of Shicheng ruins in the north of China and Shijiazhuang at the same time. From the area analysis, the number of ruins with tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of square meters is the largest, and the area is close to 1 million square meters. The number of sites has dropped drastically, and only one stone wall site of 4 million square meters has reached its core status. Technical exchanges and cultural interactions have never stopped. The north of Shijie is the Great Wall. When the Qin people, the Han people, and the Ming people face the north, they feel the desert and the country is peaceful. But the Shiyan people 4000 years ago seem to have no such sorrow. They are located in the center of the eco-pastoral zone in the north and close to the Eurasian steppe in the north. They have broad vision and mind. Looking at Eurasia, there are some exchanges and influences between urban construction technology in Central Asia and West Asia in the construction of large cities in northern China. In terms of mural production and use, the Greek Bronze Age The late murals are representative, and the use of the draft lines is consistent with the early murals represented by the sarcophagus in northern China. The use of the "纴木" technology in the construction of the stone walls may affect Europe before and after the BC. The construction method of the stone age wall in the Iron Age; the results of scientific detection analysis and shape comparison suggest that there may be a line from the west to the east of the Hexi Corridor through the northern region into the hinterland of the Central Plains. Since the late Neolithic period, the northern part of China’s Shijiazhuang has produced two-way, multiple and frequent technical exchanges and cultural interactions with Eurasia. It is an important thing that bridges Eurasia and early Chinese civilization. region. Shi Yan, this lonely stone city, sleeps for 4,000 years on the west bank of the Yellow River near Mengshan, and is finally awakened by the archaeologists. But we can only say that the mysterious stone sarcophagus only reveals the "tip of the iceberg." The Tuwei River that flows down the day and night seems to know all the stories. The frozen it is thawing. After the red, green and spring flowers, the archaeological work of the new year will start again, looking forward to the "Palace" base of Huangchengtai. Excavation will also bring us more surprises.