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Ningbo Cultural Consumption: Current Situation and Cultivation Strategy 2013-04-25


The research group of the Municipal Academy of Social Sciences launched a series of questionnaire surveys on Ningbo cultural consumption last year. The results show that 47.76% of people think that cultural consumption is as important as material consumption, and 28.57% think that cultural consumption is more than general material consumption. Advanced consumer behavior. Only 7.76% believe that cultural consumption is optional. At the end of October last year, the Municipal Wenguang Press and Publication Bureau held a vote on the “Citizens' Satisfaction Cultural Consumption Sites” on the Internet. Through the survey on the satisfaction of citizens in nine types of cultural consumption places in the city, the results showed that the citizens' satisfaction was over 60%. The price and environment have become the most important factors affecting satisfaction. The citizens still rely on traditional entertainment and knowledge-based consumption in terms of cultural consumption choices. The potential demand for high-end physical consumption needs to be further explored. On October 25, 2010, Ningbo citizens attended the opening ceremony of the 2nd China Yue Opera Art Festival. In 2011, the average per capita consumption of Ningbo citizens was 19,700 yuan, of which the cultural consumption was 3,200 yuan. Compared with other first- and second-tier cities in China, it was basically at the middle and upper reaches. Going back to 2003 to 2010, the per capita cultural consumption expenditure of urban and rural residents in Ningbo has maintained a steady and steady growth, but the proportion of cultural consumption in per capita total consumption expenditure has been hovering between 15% and 16%, and the urban-rural gap is significant. Especially after 2007, this gap has even shown a trend of continuous expansion. In 2010, the cultural consumption expenditure of rural residents even fell. Generally speaking, the current level of cultural consumption of rural residents is only equivalent to the consumption level of urban residents in the late 1990s. In addition, the cultural consumption between the lowest-income households and the highest-income households in urban and rural areas has a large gap, and the gap between urban residents is far greater than that of rural residents, showing a polarized trend. For example, in 2010, the cultural consumption expenditure of the lowest income households in urban areas was 1,189 yuan, while the cultural consumption expenditure of the highest income households in urban areas was 60,98 yuan. And whether it is rural or urban, the gap between the highest-income households and the lowest-income households is still expanding in value. From a regional perspective, the overall cultural consumption of urban areas, Yuyao and Cixi is slightly higher than that of Nansan County. The main reason for this difference is the difference in overall economic strength and the difference in urban cultural heritage. In order to further accurately analyze the structure, satisfaction and other relevant characteristics of residents' cultural consumption, in 2012, the research team of the Municipal Academy of Social Sciences organized a sample survey. The results show that 47.76% of the residents in the city think that cultural consumption is as important as material consumption, and 28.57% think that cultural consumption is a higher-level consumption behavior than general material consumption. Only 7.76% believe that cultural consumption is optional. At the same time, the survey results show that residents' emphasis on cultural consumption has a considerable relationship with their income level and education level. For example, the choice of “temporary no income” and “income below 20,000 yuan” is optional. The proportion of “demand” is 16.13% and 25%, respectively, which is 2-3 times of the average value; the choice of “junior high school and below” and “high school or secondary school” is “optional, no need for this” The ratios are 27.27% and 24%, respectively, which is 3-4 times the average. In general, the cultural consumption of residents in the city is more rational. The top three are “to meet the individual's spiritual needs and improve the quality of life”, accounting for 65.31%; “acquiring information and knowledge skills”, accounting for 56.33%; “entertainment, killing time”, accounting for “53. 66%". The questionnaire shows that in the subjective consciousness of residents, the demand for cultural consumption is not only satisfied with staying in the enjoyment stage of entertainment and entertainment, but has more and higher spiritual pursuits for learning knowledge and improving quality. Followed by "social needs", accounting for 28.16%; "training and educating children", accounting for 24.49%. It is worth noting that respondents who were in the “30-40 years old” age group chose “training and educating children” to reach 47.06%. Another 1.64% chose “face” and “1.22”% chose “other”. Among the 9 categories of 22 cultural consumption listed in the online voting by the Municipal Press and Publication Bureau, the film, KTV singing, books, travel and souvenirs, and computer consumables were respectively 66. The proportion of 51%, 65.60%, 48.52%, 31.66%, and 30.52% has become the most popular cultural consumption activity of citizens. The consumption of citizens' culture is gradually diversifying, but traditional entertainment consumption and knowledge-based consumption are still the dominant cultural consumption of the citizens. Film screening places, cultural goods business places, publication business places, art performance places and art business places. It has become the main place for citizens' cultural consumption in our city. Among the five cultural consumption activities with high citizen participation, the highest overall satisfaction is books (82.08%), and the other few are less than 70%; among the five consumer activity price indicators, book price satisfaction is over 70%. The rest is less than 60%. The survey also showed that in addition to the five major cultural consumption, cultural consumption activities of interest to the public are mainly concentrated in high-end, self-improvement cultural consumer products. Among them, photo (photographing) phase equipment accounted for 40.74%, listening to music accounted for 18.98%, musical instruments accounted for 18.06%, audio equipment accounted for 15.97%, and bookings accounted for 12.95%. Therefore, the report believes that in terms of cultural consumption choices, the citizens of the city are more inclined to traditional entertainment and knowledge-based consumption. The potential consumption capacity of high-end and physical consumer products needs to be further explored. Ningbo Mobile Digital Film Projection Team entered Xiaoyao Caojing Town. On the whole, Ningbo's cultural consumption has continued to grow steadily, but the overall scale is small, the development speed is slow, the cultural consumption structure is irrational, the development level is low, the cultural consumption development between regions and groups is not balanced, and cultural products. The contradiction between supply and cultural consumption demand is outstanding, and citizens' satisfaction is low, which is still at a relatively junior stage of development. The overall scale is small and the development speed is slow. According to international experience, when per capita GDP reaches 3,000 US dollars, cultural consumption will rise rapidly; when it reaches 5,000 US dollars, there will be a blowout. Since 2008, Ningbo's per capita GDP has even exceeded 10,000 US dollars. However, due to various reasons, the development track of cultural consumption in our city does not conform to the above-mentioned international experience, and it does not even rise or fall in terms of development speed. The structure is irrational and the level of development is low. According to the differentiation of development levels, cultural consumption can be divided into lower levels such as recreational and entertainment, as well as higher levels such as development and intelligence. At present, Ningbo's cultural consumption is still basically in the initial stage of improving the living environment and leisure and entertainment. In 2010, the city’s art performance venues generated revenues of only 10.1 million yuan, while cultural and entertainment institutions (including song and dance entertainment venues, Internet cafes and gaming electronic entertainment venues) generated revenues of 1.338 billion yuan. The contradiction between supply and demand is prominent, and the effective supply of cultural consumer goods is insufficient. At present, cultural consumer goods in the cultural market can not meet the needs of the public, and can not meet the cultural consumption needs of high-end consumers' individualized, high-end and high-quality consumers. The contradiction between supply and demand is increasingly prominent. The long-term backwardness of rural cultural consumption and the slow development of cultural consumption of vulnerable groups such as urban low-income people and migrant workers have seriously restricted the scale of Ningbo's cultural consumption. In 2010, the proportion of cultural consumption of rural residents in per capita total consumption expenditure reached the historical lowest since 2003. What caused these problems? The first is the restriction of cultural consumption subjects. This includes restrictions on income levels, restrictions on the education level of residents, and the impact of consumer psychology. The income level is mainly targeted at rural residents and low-income people in urban areas. After deducting expenses such as food, clothing, housing, medical care, old-age care and education, they can use less income for cultural consumption and have insufficient consumption capacity. The cultural quality of consumer subjects is directly proportional to the quantity and quality of cultural consumption. The proportion of Ningbo citizens with a university education level is 10.33%, while those in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Nanjing, and Hangzhou are 31.50%, 21.95%, 19.23%, and 25.19 respectively. %, 26.12%, 18.88%, the gap is large. The low level of consumer culture limits the growth in demand for cultural consumption and also leads to irrational choices for purchases and inefficient use of cultural consumer goods. Each city has its own specific regional cultural personality, and the residents in the life will also form a unique cultural mentality. 33.41% of the citizens think that the city “the urban culture is thin and lacks the overall atmosphere of cultural consumption”. This is also one of the important reasons that led to the high Engel coefficient of the city for many years, the slow growth of cultural consumption, and the heavy consumption of entertainment consumption. Second is the constraints on the supply of cultural products and services. Many cultural product production units are not completely market-oriented competition entities, nor do they develop cultural products completely for the consumer demand, resulting in the idle and waste of a large number of cultural products; current cultural innovation is scarce, and the market is full of low-quality cultural products and services. Excellent cultural products with healthy and up-and-coming. The price of cultural products and services is too high. In the Ningbo market, there are few affordable cultural consumption places for most ordinary people. Taking the cost of tourism as an example, the price of tourist attractions in our city is generally higher than that of many large and medium-sized cities. Compared with high-income people, low-income people have a greater potential contribution to the growth of cultural consumption. Excessive fares keep the ordinary people out, limiting the growth of cultural consumption demand. The marketing methods of cultural products and services are extensive, and cultural resources cannot be effectively integrated. At present, the cultural operators in Ningbo are still in the stage of single-handedness, using extensive management, the cultural market is not subdivided, the development ideas are not clear, the market positioning is not accurate, and the circulation network is not smooth, resulting in the consumer market not being able to operate at high speed. The third is the constraints of the cultural consumption policy system and the social security system. At present, the cultural consumption policies that have been implemented in Ningbo are mostly in the category of basic cultural policies, mainly in the discussion of principles and basics. Compared with economic policies, cultural consumption policies are still not mature. Cultural consumption terminal subsidy policies, price guidance policies, and cultural rights protection policies have not kept pace with the pace of consumption development and consumer demand, which has hindered the shift of potential demand to effective demand. In addition, the modern public social security system is not perfect, the people are not optimistic about the future expectations and choose to tighten the money bag, reduce the "non-essential" consumption to increase the reserve, is also very important reason. Readers read books in Ningbo Book City. According to the survey, 43.67% of Ningbo residents are willing to add cultural consumption expenditures in the coming year. Therefore, it is necessary to take strong measures to promote the full release of cultural consumption demand. It is suggested that cultural consumption policies should be incorporated into cultural industry policies, and relevant indicators of cultural consumption should be incorporated into cultural industry development plans and even cultural development plans. It is recommended to formulate a multi-level and comprehensive cultural consumption policy. Encourage and guide the innovative development model of cultural enterprises, produce high-quality cultural products (services) that meet the needs of the masses; expand channels for integrating cultural consumption, establish a cultural consumption network covering the residents of the city; achieve equalization of urban and rural cultural sharing, shorten the area The gap between cultural consumption; promote the reform of the mechanism based on price reform, increase the contribution rate of household consumption; improve the government subsidy mechanism for cultural consumption, and guide the consumption orientation of residents. In the future, how can we find growth points in both traditional and emerging consumption? Innovate business models to achieve the expansion of traditional cultural consumption. For example, to create a multi-industry integration of “urban cultural consumption complex”, the large bookstores will be integrated with other formats such as theater, fitness center, KTV, etc., supporting various types of food and beverage, leisure tea bars, retail of creative products, etc. Organically integrated with business, truly "one-stop cultural consumption." At present, Ningbo Cultural Square and Ningbo Book City have already formed some prototypes of urban cultural consumption complexes, but they should pay attention to reasonable business combinations when attracting investment. Innovative technical means to achieve the upgrading of traditional cultural consumption. The combination of new media, new technologies and traditional cultural products, such as the processing of traditional books into electronic books, the upgrade of cable TV to digital TV, etc., has given many traditional cultural consumption a new vitality. Taking film consumption as an example, in recent years, film technology has developed rapidly, 3D movies have prospered, computer special effects technology has become more and more advanced, and the innovation of production technology has put forward higher requirements for film projection equipment, but Ningbo currently has only two IMAX theaters. Faced with this situation, Ningbo can promote the upgrading of cinema infrastructure in the city through policy guidance and corresponding funds, and build a “third-generation” theater marked by modernization, multi-office and business circle, and the development of Mall. Actively develop excellent network culture products. Accelerate the integration of traditional cultural industries and network culture industries, promote cultural access to the Internet, and realize the networking and digitization of excellent cultural products, such as the construction of digital libraries, digital museums, digital cultural centers, digital art galleries, etc.; vigorously develop the network culture industry, with key support Animation, online games and other emerging industries that have great development potential and vitality in Ningbo and have certain development foundation; implement independent innovation strategy, and strive to enhance the original ability and cultural taste of online cultural products such as online music entertainment, online animation, online performance, and network literature. . Promote the emerging cultural consumption terminal in an all-round way. Desktop computers have reached a certain level of saturation in Ningbo, especially in urban households, but there is still much room for development of high-tech digital mobile consumer terminals represented by smart phones. It is necessary to tap the potential in this area and promote the popularity of mobile consumer terminals. Vigorously promote broadband Internet access to speed up and reduce fees. With the construction of “smart city”, accelerate the speed of “three networks integration”; fully implement free broadband upgrade business; break the monopoly of operators, reduce the standard of Internet tariffs, especially mobile phone data traffic charges; accelerate the city's free WIFI wireless broadband Internet project Construction. To develop cultural consumption, we must focus on people. Therefore, it is more important to vigorously improve the cultural quality of residents, cultivate residents' awareness of cultural consumption, and cultivate the cultural atmosphere of the whole society. The writer is a member of the research group of Ningbo Academy of Social Sciences (Social Science Association)